BARRIERS FOR ADOPTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPERATIONAL MEASURES IN SHIPPING INDUSTRY
A greenhouse gas (GHG) study by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates the total carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) by the shipping industry in 2012 was 2.7% of global CO2 emissions. Unless the shipping industry takes some control measures, by 2050 these emissions are expected to increase by up to 250% from their 2012 levels. Although the cost reducing effects of some measures and new technologies are well established, shipping companies appear reluctant to adopt them. The objectives for this study are to quantify the influences of stakeholders and identify the barriers to energy efficiency operational measures by the survey among various stakeholders from all corners of the shipping industry. Questionnaires were prepared and validated by a pilot survey and then, distributed to 108 stakeholders of the shipping industry for survey both in Malaysia and Bangladesh and 81 stakeholders have been responded. It has been found in this study that the barriers for implementation of all cost-free operational measures are almost the same for both countries such as lack of awareness and competence of ship crews (46%), operational difficulties of measures (38%) and lack of information of measures (31%). It was also found that financial issue (66%) and owner’s interest (43%) are the key barriers for some other operational measures which are related to costing and need investment for implementation. In this study, 75% stakeholders have agreed that for technical operational measures, ship crews and technical managers have very high influences while for measures related to costing, the ship owners and managers have very high influences. Finally, some guidelines have been recommended to overcome the barriers. The main recommendation is for the training of ship crews and technical managers to increase their awareness and knowledge on energy efficiency regulations and measures. In addition, the formulation of national green shipping policy and provisions of financial supports for the ship owners have been recommended. The adoption of these guidelines is expected to improve the GHG emission control of ships.