F R Chowdhury
Image Credit: ClassNK
1. What is PSC:
It is customary to respect law of the land. You will appreciate that I will have to comply with laws of Malaysia so long I am in Malaysia no matter what my nationality is. The principle of Port State Control is based on this simple philosophy. A ship that enters my waters will have to comply with my legal requirements and standards. You might wonder as to how many countries’ laws the ship has to comply with? Fortunately the national laws are based on requirements of common international conventions. This means to say that the requirements relating to safety, security and protection of marine environment are derived from common international conventions and as such are similar to each other’s. Read more
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was made mandatory for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships at MEPC 62 (July 2011) with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI (resolution MEPC.203(62)), by Parties to MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. The new MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 4: Energy Efficiency requirements Enter into force on 1 January 2013.
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI):
- It is an index quantifying the amount of carbon dioxide that a ship emits in relation to the goods transported.
- indication of energy efficiency by CO2 emission (g) per cargo carry (ton mile) The actual EEDI of a vessel is called the “attained EEDI” and is calculated based on guidelines published by IMO. The result must be below the limit “required EEDI” prescribed in MARPOL.
- For existing vessels, the EEDI is in most cases irrelevant. It will become relevant only if a ship undergoes a major conversion that is so extensive that the ship is regarded by the Administration as a newly constructed ship.
- For new ships, a technical file must be created showing the attained EEDI and its calculation process.
- The EEDI and the technical file will be subject to verification by the flag administration.
Image Credit: www.imo.org
The Paris Climate Change conference (COP21) 2015 Agreement identifies a clear goal on two objectives:
- holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and
- to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
IMO has contributed over last decade and will continue to contribute to global GHG reduction goals. IMO and its Member States recognise the important need for international shipping, which accounts for 2.2% of CO2 anthropogenic emissions (Third IMO GHG Study 2014) to support global efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change.
Image Credit: www.imo.org
Monitoring Reporting & Verification (MRV) is a standardised method to produce an accurate CO2 emissions inventory, through the quantification of CO2 emissions. The key principles of the scheme are to generate robust results using a lean approach considering parameters which are already monitored during normal operations.
It is advocated as a way of monitoring a ship’s fuel consumption and its operational energy efficiency performance.
MRV is still under discussion in IMO and they will come up with a decision in next MEPC. The new EU Regulation 2015/757 came into force on 1 July 2015 and operating from 2018.
There is a MEPC Working Group active on the subject:
A corresponding working group and pilot testing of various schemes are encouraged.
Work has significantly progressed and is likely to finalise in 2016.
(Energy-efficiency and air pollution implementation at IMO environment meeting, Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), 68th session.11-15 May 2015)
Further development of energy-efficiency guidelines for ships
The MEPC continued its work on further developing guidelines to assist in the implementation of the mandatory energy-efficiency regulations for international shipping and:
• adopted amendments to update the 2014 Guidelines on survey and certification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and endorsed their application from 1 September 2015, at the same time encouraging earlier application;
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships,
1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978.
The MARPOL Convention is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and updated by amendments through the years.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO and covered pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, sewage and garbage. The Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol) was adopted at a Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention in February 1978 held in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977. (Measures relating to tanker design and operation were also incorporated into a Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1974 Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974).